Saddam Hussain, Muhammad Imran Malik, Shabir Hyder, Muhammad Arsalan Khan, Nosheen Anwar


The less representation of women at top managerial level
remained an eye catching issue in organizational studies in the
recent past. The current study aimed at revisiting the existing
relationship between gender discrimination and career mobility in
a sample of female bank employees. Furthermore, the influence of
social norms, work-family balance and self- efficacy as mediating
variables is examined. Data were collected through self-reported
questionnaire from female bank employees. Correlation and
regression tests were applied using the SPSS. Results indicate that
there is a negative link between gender discrimination and female
career mobility in banks operating in Pakistan.

Full Text:



Abbas, Q., Hameed, A. & Waheed, A. (2011). Gender Discrimination

& Its Effect on Employee Performance/Productivity,

International Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 1(15),


Archer, J., & Lloyd, B. (2002). Sex and Gender. Cambridge, United

Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Babcock, L. & Laschever, S. (2003). Women Don’t Ask: Negotiation

and the Gender Divide (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University

Press, 2003), 1-11.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.),

Encyclopaedia of human behaviour, New York: Academic Press,

pp. 71-81.

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge

University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York:

Freeman and Company.

Chang, T. F. H. (2003). A social Psychological Model of Women’s

gender typed occupational mobility. Career Development

International, 8(1), 27-39.

Channar, Z.A. Abbasi, Z. & Ujan, I. A. (2011). Gender Discrimination

in Workforce and its Impact on the Employees. Pakistan

Journal of Consumer Social Sciences, 5(1), 177-191.

Corcoran, M. E. and Courant, N. P. (1987). Sex role socialization and

occupational segregation: an exploratory investigation.



Discrimination and Career Mobility

Cotter, D. A., Hermson, J.G., Ovadia. S., & Vannerman, R. (2001). The

glass ceiling effect. Social Forces, 80(2), 655-681.

Cox, T.H. & Harquail, C.V. (1991). Career path and career success in

the early career stages of male and female MBAs. Journal of

Vocational Behaviour, 39, 54-75.

Erik, B. & Marita, O. (2006). The glass ceiling-where is it? Women’s

and men’s career prospects in the private vs. the public sector

in Sweden 1979-2000. The Sociological Review, 54(1), 20-47

Feldman, D. & Ng, T. (2007). Careers: Mobility, embeddedness, and

success. Journal of Management, 33(3), 350-377.

Gayle, G., Golan, L. & Miller, R.A. (2012). Gender differences in executive

compensation and job mobility. Journal of Labor Economics,

(4), 829-872.

Johari, H., Mat, N., Mat, N., Othman, S.N., & Mohamed, A.H. (2013).

Exploring Career Success among Women Engineers – The

Malayasiz Case. International Journal of Education and

Research, 1(11), 1-8.

Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York:

Basic Books, Inc.

Khan, M. A. (2014). Organizational cynicism and employee turnover

intention: Evidence from banking sector in Pakistan. Pakistan

Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 8(1), 30- 41.

Malik, M.I., Saif, M.I., Gomez, S.F., Khan, N. & Hussain, S. (2010).

Balancing work and family through social support among

working women in Pakistan. African Journal of Business

Management, 4(13), 2864-2870.



Discrimination and Career Mobility

Maume, J. D. (1999). Occupational segregation and the career mobility

of white men and women. Social Forces, 77 (4), 1433-1459.

Nikala, L. (2000). The lowest status of female part time NHS nurses: a

bed-pan ceiling, Gender, Work & Organization, Blackwell

Publishers Ltd., 7(4), 269-279.

Powell, D.A & G.N. Butterfield.(1994) “Investigating The ‘Glass Ceiling’

Phenomenon: An Empirical Study Of Actual Promotions To

Top Management” Academy Of Management Journal; 37(1).

Sartore, L. M. & Cunningham, B. G. (2007). Explaining the Underrepresentation

of Women in Leadership Positions of Sport

Organizations: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective. National

Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher

Education. 59, 244-265

Sicherman, N. & Galor, O. (1990). A theory of career mobility. The

Journal of Political Economy, 98(1), 169-192.

Subramaniam, I.D. & Arumugam, T. (2013). What is Preventing

Malaysians Women Manager’s Career Progression, Journal

of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3(5), 286-296.

Zeldin, A. L., & Pajares, F. (2000). Against the odds: Self-efficacy

beliefs of women in mathematical, scientific, and technological

careers. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 215–

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/pbr.v18i2.834


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.