A Model of Consumer Engagement, Brand Awareness and Brand Loyalty: Analysis of Mediation and Feedback Loop Effect

sehrish Nisar


The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model that links the concepts of Online Consumer Engagement (OCE) to Brand Relationship Quality (BRQ). Primarily, it aims to develop understanding of the significance of this relationship with and without a mediating variable i.e. Brand Awareness. It further seeks to broaden knowledge of a strong BRQ’s positive outcomes by incorporating Word of Mouth and Brand Loyalty to the model and to analyze the iterative quality of Brand Loyalty. This study makes use of Structural Equation Modeling technique in order to carry out Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Path Analysis and Mediation Analysis. The findings revealed that all the relationships in the model were significant and were, therefore, accepted. The mediation analysis indicated that Brand Awareness partially mediates and strengthens the relationship between OCE and BRQ. Brand Loyalty’s iterative quality revealed existence of feedback loop from Brand Loyalty to Online Consumer Engagement. 


Online Consumer Engagement; Brand Relationship Quality; Brand Loyalty; recursive

Full Text:



Aaker DA. Managing Brand Equity. New York: The Free Press, 1991

Aaker, J., Fournier, S., & Brasel, S. A. (2004). When good brands do bad.Journal of Consumer research, 31(1), 1-16.

Ahuja, V., & Medury, Y. (2010). Corporate blogs as e-CRM tools–Building consumer engagement through content management. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 17(2), 91-105.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour.

Alba, J. W., & Hutchinson, J. W. (1987). Dimensions of consumer expertise. Journal of consumer research, 411-454.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.

Beatty, S. E., & Talpade, S. (1994). Adolescent influence in family decision making: a replication with extension. Journal of Consumer Research, 332-341.

Bettencourt, L. A. (1997). Customer voluntary performance: customers as partners in service delivery. Journal of retailing, 73(3), 383-406.

Boshoff, C. (1997). An experimental study of service recovery options. International Journal of service industry management, 8(2), 110-130.

Bowden, J.L. (2009). The Process of Customer Engagement: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 17 (1), 63-74.

Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Juric, B., & Ilic, A. (2011). Customer engagement: conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 1094670511411703.

Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 105-114

Brown, T. J., Barry, T. E., Dacin, P. A., & Gunst, R. F. (2005). Spreading the word: Investigating antecedents of consumers’ positive word-of-mouth intentions and behaviors in a retailing context. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(2), 123-138.

Cheung, C., Lee, M., & Jin, X. (2011). Customer engagement in an online social platform: A conceptual model and scale development.

Citrin, A. V. (2001). Information quality perceptions: The role of communication media characteristics. Information and Learning, 17, 1–143.

Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of marketing, 65(2), 81-93.

Cooil, B., Keiningham, T. L., Aksoy, L., & Hsu, M. (2007). A longitudinal analysis of customer satisfaction and share of wallet: Investigating the moderating effect of customer characteristics. Journal of Marketing, 71(1), 67-83.

Doney, P. M., & Cannon, J. P. (1997). An examination of the nature of trust in buyer-seller relationships. the Journal of Marketing, 35-51.

Edelman, D. C. (2010). Branding in the digital age. Harvard business review,88(12), 62-69.

Esch, F. R., Langner, T., Schmitt, B. H., & Geus, P. (2006). Are brands forever? How brand knowledge and relationships affect current and future purchases. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(2), 98-105.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 39-50.

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of consumer research, 24(4), 343-353.

Fournier, S., & Yao, J. L. (1997). Reviving brand loyalty: A reconceptualization within the framework of consumer-brand relationships. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14(5), 451-472.

Fournier, S., 1994. A consumer-brand relationship framework for strategic brand management. Dissertation at the University of Florida.

Fournier, Susan (1998). Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationships Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (1), 343-373.

Gruen, T. W., Osmonbekov, T., & Czaplewski, A. J. (2006). eWOM: The impact of customer-to-customer online know-how exchange on customer value and loyalty. Journal of Business research, 59(4), 449-456.

Gustafsson, A., Johnson, M. D., & Roos, I. (2005). The effects of customer satisfaction, relationship commitment dimensions, and triggers on customer retention. Journal of marketing, 69(4), 210-218.

Hollebeek, L. (2011). Exploring customer brand engagement: definition and themes. Journal of strategic Marketing, 19(7), 555-573.

Hollebeek, L. D. (2011). Demystifying customer brand engagement: Exploring the loyalty nexus. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7-8), 785-807.

Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of interactive marketing, 28(2), 149-165.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Hudson, S., Roth, M. S., Madden, T. J., & Hudson, R. (2015). The effects of social media on emotions, brand relationship quality, and word of mouth: An empirical study of music festival attendees. Tourism Management, 47, 68-76.

Hung, K. H., & Li, S. Y. (2007). The influence of eWOM on virtual consumer communities: Social capital, consumer learning, and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(4), 485.

Iacobucci, D. (2008). Mediation analysis (No. 156). Sage.

Jacoby, J., Chestnut, R.W., 1978. Brand loyalty: measurement and management. Wiley, Chichester, New York

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. The Journal of Marketing, 1-22.

Kim, D.U.,2008. AMOSA to Z:Structural Equation Modeling for Writing Papers. Hakhyunsa,Paju.

Kim, H. B., & Kim, W. G. (2005). The relationship between brand equity and firms’ performance in luxury hotels and chain restaurants. Tourism management, 26(4), 549-560.

Kim, K.S.,2008. Structural Equation Modeling Analysis. Hannarae, Seoul.

MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual review of psychology, 58, 593.

McKnight, D. H., Choudhury, V., & Kacmar, C. (2002). The impact of initial consumer trust on intentions to transact with a web site: a trust building model. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3), 297-323.

Michel G. et Vergne J.F. (2004). Comment expliquer l’attachement aux e-marques : applications aux Sites de Ventes en Ligne ?, Actes du XXème Congrès de l’Association Française de Marketing, 6 et 7 Mai, Saint Malo

Mollen, A., & Wilson, H. (2010). Engagement, telepresence and interactivity in online consumer experience: Reconciling scholastic and managerial perspectives. Journal of business research, 63(9), 919-925.

Murray, A. L., & Johnson, W. (2013). The limitations of model fit in comparing the bi-factor versus higher-order models of human cognitive ability structure.Intelligence, 41(5), 407-422.

Nammir, D. S. S., Marane, B. M., & Ali, A. M. (2012). Determine the Role of Customer Engagement on Relationship Quality and Relationship Performance.European Journal of Business and Management, 4(11), 27-36.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? The Journal of Marketing, 33-44.

Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2005). Consumer-based brand equity: improving the measurement-empirical evidence. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(3), 143-154.

Patterson, P., Yu, T. and De Ruyter, K. (2006), “Understanding customer engagement in services,” Proceedings, Australia-New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, Brisbane, Decembe

Reitz, A. R. (2012). Online consumer engagement: Understanding the antecedents and outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University).

Richter, A., & Koch, M. (2007). Social software: Status quo und Zukunft (pp. 1-49). Fak. für Informatik, Univ. der Bundeswehr München.

Rossiter, J. R., & Percy, L. (1987). Advertising and promotion management. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Rothschild, M. L. (1984). Perspectives on involvement: current problems and future directions. Advances in consumer research, 11(1), 216-217.

Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiro, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate. Journal of applied psychology, 90(6), 1217.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness studies, 3(1), 71-92.

Shabbir, S., Kaufmann, H. R., Ahmad, I., & Qureshi, I. M. (2010). Cause related marketing campaigns and consumer purchase intentions: The mediating role of brand awareness and corporate image.

Sharma, S., Mukherjee, S., Kumar, A., and Dillon, W.R. (2005). A simulation study to investigate the use of cutoff values for assessing model fit in covariance structure models. Journal of Business Research, 58 (1), 935-43

Smit, E., Bronner, F., & Tolboom, M. (2007). Brand relationship quality and its value for personal contact. Journal of Business Research, 60(6), 627-633.

Srull TK. (1984). Methodological techniques for the study of person memory and social cognition. Wyer RS, Srull TK, editors. Handbook of Social Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,2, 1 -72.

Thomson, M., MacInnis, D.J., & Park, C.W. (2005). The ties that bind: Measuring the strengthof consumers' emotional attachments to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1),77–91

Vila, N., & Kuster, I. (2011). Consumer feelings and behaviours towards well designed websites. Information & Management, 48(4), 166-177.

Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., & Morgan, R. M. (2012). Customer engagement: Exploring customer relationships beyond purchase. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20(2), 127-145.

Wixom, B. H., & Todd, P. A. (2005). A theoretical integration of user satisfaction and technology acceptance. Information systems research, 16(1), 85-102.

Wu, C., & Shaffer, D. R. (1987). Susceptibility to persuasive appeals as a function of source credibility and prior experience with the attitude object. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(4), 677.

Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism management,26(1), 45-56.

Yu, J., & Cooper, H. (1983). A quantitative review of research design effects on response rates to questionnaires. Journal of Marketing Research, 36-44.

Zailskaite-jakste, L., & Kuvykaite, R. (2012). Consumer Engagement in Social Media by Building the Brand. In Electronic International Interdisciplinary Conference (pp. 194-202).

Zhang, Z., Ye, Q., Law, R., & Li, Y. (2010). The impact of e-word-of-mouth on the online popularity of restaurants: A comparison of consumer reviews and editor reviews. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 694-700.

Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of consumer research,37(2), 197-206.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/pbr.v20i1.597


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.