CNFU for Consumers of Karachi-A Second Order CFA Modeling Approach

Masood Hassan, Syed muhammad Fahim, Adnan Bashir


In the consumer realm, it has been established that high NFU individuals have stronger preferences for unique products relative to low NFU individuals.  The CNFU scale used in this study was originally developed by Tian et al (2001) comprising 31 items using 5-point likert scale (1 = strongly agree to 5 = strongly disagree). The three constructs underlying CNFU are Creative Choice counterconformity (CC); Unpopular Choice counterconformity (UC); and Avoidance of Similarity (AS). The latent causal structure was a second-order factor model in which these three constructs of CNFU are first-order latent factor models all converging to a second-order factor model termed as CNFU.  The convergence of observed variables into latent constructs was found to be plausible. All respective hypotheses were accepted that respective observed variables converge to their latent respective variables. The final hypothesis related to the second-order CFA was also found to be acceptable that the latent variables viz. Creative Choice counterconformity, Unpopular Choice counterconformity, and Avoidance of Similarity have a considerable bearing on the second-order latent variable, Need for Uniqueness (NFU). This shows that self esteem driven need for uniqueness exists in Karachi implying need of consumers for differentiated products offered by marketers.



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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.