Ahmed Raza Cheema, Ahmed Raza Cheema


The study estimates the determinants of education achievement by employing Censored Ordered Probit model using the PSLM data 2010/11. The results depict that mother education has more prominent effects on children’s education achievement than father education. The gender wise results indicate that the father education has more effects on boys’ education achievement while the mother education has more effects on girls’ education achievement. The relationship between age of children and education achievement is of inverted ‘U’ shaped. The results show that land ownership and income have significant positive effects on education achievement. School distance and household size are major problems for children education achievements especially for girls. The study also finds that boys have more chances of education achievements than girls in rural, urban and overall Pakistan. Regional level results show that children have more chances of education achievements in urban areas as compared to rural areas of Pakistan. The study suggests that there should be more emphasize on school education achievement especially for girls who are going to become mother tomorrow especially in rural areas. The government should enhance awareness to control family size and provide schools nearest to the homes of children. The land reforms should be reconsidered and economic growth enhancing policies should be adopted.


father education, mother education, income, land ownership, age of children, school distance, family size, Pakistan.


Abdulahi, B. A. (2008). Education and rural development. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences,5(7):655-662.

Aghili, M. and Kashani, M. (2012). Predicting factors of higher education in Iran. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research,2(3):2688-2693.

Aghion, P, Askenazy, P., Bourlès, R., Cette, G. and Dromel, N. (2009). Education, market rigidities and growth. Economics Letters,102(1):62-65.

Akhtar, Z. (2012). Socio-economic Status Factors Effecting the Students Achievement:A Predictive Study, International Journal of Social Sciences and Education (2) Issue: 1 ISSN: 2223-4934.

Ahmed, S. C., Andreea A, Gillespie, D. G. and Tsui, A. O. (2009). Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries. Peer-reviewed scientific journal,5(6):11-190.

Ali, S. and Tahir, M. (2000). Reforming education in Pakistan–tracing global links. Journal of Research and Reflections in Education,3(15):1-17

Ali, N. and Stanley, F. (2000). Acquired weakness, handgrip strength, and education achievement. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine,178(3):261-268.

Anjum, S. and Uzma, I. (2007). Socioeconomic determinants of school progression in Pakistan. Applied Econometrics and International Development,7(2):34-76.

Angel, J. L., Angel, R. J., Hill, T. D. and Burdette, A. M. (2010). Religious attendance and cognitive functioning among older Mexican Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences,61(1):3-9.

Appleton, S. (1996). Women-headed households and household welfare: An empirical deconstruction for Uganda. World Development,24(12):1811-1827.

Appleton, J., Christenson, S. L. and Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools,45(5):369-386.

Baluch, M. U. H. and Shahid, S. (2008). Determinants of enrolment in primary education: a case study of district Lahore. Pakistan Economic and Social Review,46(2):161-200.

Banerjee, A. V. and Duflo, E. (2011). Poor economics: A radical rethinking of the way to fight global poverty. Finanzas Públishers,3(6).

Basant, R. and Sen, G. (2013). Access to Higher Education in India: An Exploration of Its Antecedents.

Bauer, T. and Gang, I. (2001). Sibling rivalry in educational attainment: The German case. IZA discussion paper No. 1379,15(2):237-255.

Bernard, G., Brannan, C., Jones, R. and Westwood, S. (2004). Good practice in the education of children in residential care. British Journal of Social Work,34(8):1133-1160.

Bhattacharya, U. (2011). Three Empirical Essays on Child Education Using Data from India.

Binder, M. (1998). Family background, gender and schooling in Mexico. The Journal of Development Studies,35(2):54-71.

Cambel, R. and Seigel, B. N. (1967). The Demand for higher education in United States. The Amrican Economic Review,3(57):482-494.

Chapman, K., Phillip, A., Martha, N. and Christopher, D. (2004). “Dropout rates in the United States: 2001. Statistical Analysis Report NCES 2005-046”. US Department of Education.

Cheng, H. (2009). Inequality in basic education in China: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Educational Policies,21(3):88-106.

Colclough, C., Rose, P. and Tembon, M. (2000). Gender inequalities in primary schooling. International Journal of Educational Development,20(2):5-27.

Coleman. (1966). The determinants of scholastic achievement-an appraisal of some recent evidence. Journal of Human Resources,9(1):3-24.

Dakar. (2000). Achievement in implementing Education for All (EFA) in Tanzania. International Journal of Educational Development,27(2):53-76.

David. K. (2014). Turning points in the transition to adulthood: Determinants of educational attainment, incarceration, and early childbearing among children of immigrants. Journal of Ethnic and Racial Studies,28(6):1041-1086.

David. K. (2014). Education and other measures of socioeconomic status and risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a defined population of older persons. Archives of neurology,54(11):1399-1405.

Kingdon, G. G. and Drèze, J. (2001). School participation in rural India. Development Economics,5(1):1-24.

Eamon, M. K. (2005). Social-demographic, school, neighborhood, and parenting influences on the academic achievement of Latino young adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence,34(2):163-174.

Eshiwani, G. S. (1993). Education in Kenya since independence. First Edition. East African Publishers.

Glewwe, P. and Jacoby, H. (1992). Estimating the determinants of cognitive achievement in low-income countries. Journal of Human Resources,29(3):843-864.

Hanushek, E. A. and Wobmann, L. (2014). The role of education quality for economic growth. Jorunal of Economic Literaure,46(3):607-668.

Hanushek, S. and Gabriel, H. (2014). Handing over the school keys: the impact of privatisation on education quality. Journal of economic Affairs,34(2):196-210.

Hijazi. A. and Naqvi, Z. (2006). Socio-economic status factors effecting the students achievement: A predictive study. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education,2(1):281-287.

Holmes, J. (1991). Measuring the determinants of school completion in Pakistan: Analysis of censoring and selection bias. Economics of Education Review,141(22):249-64.

Jayachandran, S. and Lleras, M. A. (2002). Life expectancy and human capital investments in India, Working Paper No. 13947.

Juma, S., Enose, M. and Simatwa, T. (2014). Impact of free secondary education policy on gender equality in secondary school education in Kenya: A case study of Kericho County. Educational Research Review,5(3):2141-5161.

Khan, M. S., Amjad, R. and Din, M. U. (2002). Human Capital and Economic Growth in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review,44(4):455-478.

Khan, N. and Ali, H. (2005). Flaws in Pakistan's educational system. Journal of Social Sciences,4(1):10-56.

King. A. and Lillard, L. A. (1994). Intergenerational educational mobility: Effects of family and state in Malaysia. Journal of Human Resources,29(4):1126-1166.

Kodde, D. A. and Ritzen, J. M. (1988). Direct and indirect effects of parental education level on the demand for higher education. Journal of Human Resources,22(3):356-371.

Knight, J. and Shi, L. (1996). Educational attainment and the rural‐urban divide in China. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,58(1):83-117.

Kuo, H. D. and Hauser, R. M. (1998). Does the gender composition affect women's educational attainment? Journal of Human Resources,21(4):644-657.

Lodhi, A. S., Tsegai, D. and Gerber, N. (2011). Determinants of participation in child's education and alternative activities in Pakistan. ZEF Discussion Papers No.159 on Development Policy.

Maitra, P. (2001). Schooling and educational attainment: evidence from Bangladesh. Education Economics,11(2):129-153.

Maitra, P. and Ray. R. (2002). The joint estimation of child participation in schooling and employment: Comparative evidence from three continents. Oxford development Studies,30(1):41-62.

Maitra, P. and Sharma, A. (2009). Parents and children: Education across generations in india. Paper presented at the 5th annual conference on economic growth and development, ISI Delhi, Delhi.

Miller, L. (2007). Learner-centered classroom practices and assessments: Maximizing student motivation, learning, and achievement. 3rd Edition. Corwin Press.

Ming, J. S. K. (2010). Institutional factors influencing students’ college choice decision in Malaysia: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Business and Social Science,1(3):53-58.

Okoijie, P. (2002). The impact of gender inequality in education on rural poverty: An empirical analysis. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences,15(2):174-188.

Otunga, R. (1994). School leadership development in Africa. International handbook on the preparation and development of school leaders,22(3):367-382.

Quang, A. (2012). Determinants of educational expenditure in Vietnam. International Journal of Applied Economics,9(1),59-72.

Qureshi, M. A., Shirazi, R. A. and Wasim, M. P. (2007). Perspective and Prospects of Commencing New Education Policy (NEP) of Pakistan: A Review of Conference. Indus Journal of Management and Social Sciences,2(1):167-176.

Khan, B. A. and Ali, I. (2005). Managing NGOs in Developing Countries: Concepts, frameworks. 1st Edition, Oxford University Press, USA.

Rahman, M., Khanam, R., and Nghiem, H. S. (2011). The impact of childhood malnutrition on schooling: evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of biosocial science,43(04):437-451.

Rammohan, A. and Dancer, D. (2008). Gender differences in intra household schooling outcomes: The role of sibling characteristics and birth‐order effects. Education Economics,16(2):111-126.

Rehman, H. and Khan, N. (2011). Flaws in Pakistan's educational system. Journal of Social Sciences,4(1):10-56.

Saifi, S. and Mehmood, T. (2011). Effects of socio-economic status on student’s achievement. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education,16(2):119-128.

Sanchez, M. V. and Sbrana, G. (2009). Determinants of education attainment and development goals in Yemen. Prepared for the Project Assessing Development Strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in the Arab Region, UNDP-RBAS, UN-DESA and World Bank.

Sathar, Z. A. and Lloyd, C. B. (1994). Who gets primary schooling in Pakistan: Inequalities among and within families. The Pakistan Development Review,1(4):103-134.

Sathar, Z. A. and Lloyd, C. B, M. (2005). The effect of gender differences in primary school access, type, and quality on the decision to enroll in rural Pakistan. Economic Development and Cultural Change,53(3):685-710.

Smyth, N., Carnevale, A. P. and Strohl, J. (2010). Help wanted: Projections of job and Education Requirements through 2018: 1st Edition. Lumina Foundation Publisher.

Singh, R. D. (1992). Underinvestment, low economic returns to education, and the schooling of rural children: Some evidence from Brazil. Economic Development and Cultural Change,25(12):645-664.

Tansel, A. (2002). Determinants of school attainment of boys and girls in Turkey: individual, household and community factors. Economics of Education Review, 21(5), 455-470.

Yucel, S. (2007). An analysis of the factors affecting student achievement in chemistry lessons. World Applied Sciences Journal,2(6):712-722.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.