Students’ Out-of-class Web 2.0 Practices in Foreign Language Learning

Natalya Kuznetsova, Kamal Ahmed Soomro


The scholarship on foreign language (FL) learning and teaching shows various ways Web 2.0 technologies are used to promote and ease communication and gives access to and cultural exchange of information, which are the main purposes of language learning. Despite prolific examination of strategies and impact of Web 2.0 to enhance language learning, researchers have not yet sufficiently examined technology practices initiated by students themselves to support their FL experiences and the awareness of this use. The present study reports on the findings of an exploratory survey research project that investigated university students’ activities to use Web 2.0 sites to support their FL learning and awareness of those practices. Moreover, the study attempts to analyze students’ reported actions through the framework of 5 Cs (communication, comparison, communities, cultures, connections) of ACTFL (American Council of Teaching on Foreign Languages). The data collected from 137 FL students revealed that students are moderately engaged with Web 2.0 technologies in their FL learning practices and use such tools primarily for comparing the foreign language and culture to the native language and culture in different mediums. “Video sharing” and “Social Networking” were reported as favorite tools to use supporting students’ foreign language learning experience.

Keywords: ACTFL standards, foreign language learning, social media, Web 2.0


Web 2.0, social media, language learning, ACTFL standards

Full Text:



Ajjan, H., & Hartshorne, R. (2008). Investigating faculty decisions to adopt Web 2.0 technologies: Theory and empirical tests. The Internet and Higher Education, 11(2), 71-80.

Akbari, E., Naderi, A., Simons, R., & Pilot, A. (2016). Student engagement and foreign language learning through online social networks. Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 1(4), 1–22. doi: 10.1186/s40862-016-0006-7

American Council of Teachers of Foreign Language (ACTFL), (2012). Standards for foreign language learning: Preparing for the 21st century. Alexandria: U.S. Dept. of Education.

Antenos-Conforti, E. (2009). Microblogging on Twitter: Social networking in intermediate Italian classes. In L. Lomicka & G. Lord (Eds.). The next generation: Social networking and online collaboration in foreign language learning (pp. 59-90). San Marcos, Texas: CALICO.

Bartolomé, A. (2008). Web 2.0 and new learning paradigms. eLearning Papers,8, 1-10.

Bower, M., Hedberg, J. G., & Kuswara, A. (2010). A framework for Web 2.0 learning design. Educational Media International, 47(3), 177-198. /09523987.2010.518811

Boyd, D., & Ellison, N. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 210–230.

Burgo, C. (2016). Oral history as an innovative language teaching technique for Spanish heritage language learners. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 28(3), 451-459.

Cai, Z., Fan, X., & Du, J. (2017). Gender and attitudes toward technology use: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 105, 1-13.

Campion, R. S., Nalda, F. N., & Rivilla, A. M. (2012). Web 2.0 and higher education: Its educational use in the university environment. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 2.

Canning-Wilson, C., & Wallace, J. (2000). Practical aspects of using video in the foreign language classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, 6(11), 36-1.

Chang, C. W., Pearman, C., & Farha, N. (2012). Second language acquisition: Implications of Web 2.0 and beyond. Critical Questions in Education, 3(2), 52-64.

Chun, D., Smith, B., & Kern, R. (2016). Technology in language use, language teaching, and language Learning. The Modern Language Journal, 100, 64–80. doi: 10.1111/ modl.12302

Collis, B., & Moonen, J. (2008). Web 2.0 tools and processes in higher education: Quality perspectives. Educational Media International, 45(2), 93-106. https://doi. org/10.1080/09523980802107179

Davies, J. (2012). Facework on Facebook as a new literacy practice. Computers & Education, 59(1), 19-29. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.11.007

Dippold, D. (2009). Peer feedback through blogs: Student and teacher perceptions in an advanced German class. ReCALL, 21(1), 18-36.

Dubravac, S., Liskin-Gasparro, J. E., & Lacorte, M. (2012). Technology in the L2 curriculum. Pearson Higher Ed.

Faizi, R., Afia, A. E., & Chiheb, R. (2014). Social Media: An optimal virtual environment for learning foreign languages. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 9(5), 64-66.

Kirby, P. S. (2012). Research into the utility of standards in foreign language instruction: A case study of methods used in the high school setting. Doctoral dissertation, Utah State University, USA.

Lai, C., Hu, X., & Lyu, B. (2018). Understanding the nature of learners’ out-of-class language learning experience with technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(1-2), 114-143.

Lee, L., & Markey, A. (2014). A study of learners’ perceptions of online intercultural exchange through Web 2.0 technologies. ReCALL, 26(3), 281-297.

O’Dowd, R. (Ed.). (2007). Online intercultural exchange. An introduction for foreign language teachers. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Pan, S. C., & Franklin, T. (2011). In-service teachers’ self-efficacy, professional development, and Web 2.0 tools for integration. New Horizons in Education, 59(3), 28-40.

Pop, A. (2010). The impact of the new technologies in foreign language instruction our experience. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1185-1189.

Richards, J. C. (2015). The changing face of language learning: Learning beyond the classroom. RELC Journal, 46(1), 5-22. doi: 10.1177/0033688214561621

Song, Y., & Fox, R. (2005). Integrating M-technology into web-based ESL vocabulary learning for working adult learners. In Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education 2005 (pp. 154–158). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.

Steel, C. H., & Levy, M. (2013). Language students and their technologies: Charting the evolution 2006–2011. ReCALL, 25(3), 306-320. S0958344013000128

Sun, Y. C. (2009). Voice blog: An exploratory study of language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 13(2), 88-103.

Tapscott, D. (2009). Grown up digital: How the next generation is changing your world. New York: McGraw Hill.

Thorne, S. L. (2005). Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education: Approaches, pedagogy, and research. Pennsylvania State University: CALPER.

Tu, C., Blocher, M., & Ntoruru, J. (2008). Integrate Web 2.0 technology to facilitate online professional community: EMI special editing experiences. Educational Media International, 45(4), 335–341.

Wang, S., & Vásquez, C. (2012). Web 2.0 and second language learning: What does the research tell us? Calico Journal, 29(3), 412-430.

Zhao, Y. (2003). Recent developments in technology and language learning: A literature review and meta-analysis. CALICO journal, 21(1), 7-27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License