Personal Characteristics as determinants of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy among University Students in Pakistan

Muhammad Shakir


Entrepreneurship is considered as a solution to unemployment. It is believed that Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (ESE) is imperative for a person to be an entrepreneur. This study aims to examine the determinants of ESE among university students in Pakistan. This is one of the fundamental constructs in the psychology of entrepreneurship research and often integrated in entrepreneurial intentions models to explain why some persons are more likely than others to become entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale prepared by Chen, Greene, and Crick (1998) was used in this study for collecting data. Total 800 questionnaires were distributed among conveniently selected students out of which 742 completely filled questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 92.75%. The results revealed a significant difference between bachelor and master class students in terms of ESE. The model R-squared indicated that 5.7 percent of the variation in the ESE is explained by the personal characteristics. The paper concludes by pointing out some limitations of the study and discussing the possible effect of personal characteristics on ESE.


entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale, self-efficacy

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License