Growing Population of Pakistani Youth: A Ticking Time Bomb or a Demographic Dividend

Erum Hafeez, Tayyaba Fasih

Abstract


Pakistan is considered to be the fifth largest young country in the world. Around 63 percent population of the country comprises youth aged between 15 and 33 (UN Population Fund Report 2017). Such a large young population has posed daunting challenges to the social, economic and political sectors of the state. The fast rising youth bulge of Pakistan seems to be a constantly ticking time bomb instead of a demographic dividend, threatening its very own existence. Poor youth engagement in the productive political, educational, economic and socio-cultural activities indicates ineffectiveness of the public and private sectors policies especially at the state level. The current research study is intended to identify the key factors behind the disengaged and distressed youth of Pakistan in the three core areas of education, economy and politics. For this purpose, a systematic literature review was carried out in which national and international labor survey reports, youth development index, national youth program and federal education and economic policies were critically analyzed alongside the relevant research studies, nongovernment organizations’ reports and media coverage for a dynamic overview. Besides, interviews of relevant stakeholders were also conducted to investigate the issue from diverse perspectives. Evidently, youth partnership, empowerment, and engagement in educational, economic and political sectors can be the only way forward to address the increasing challenges of the country.


Keywords: demographic dividend, employment, literacy, youth development


Keywords


Pakistani Youth, Demographic Dividend, Ticking Time Bomb, Employment, Literacy, Youth Development Index.

Full Text:

PDF

References


British Council. (2013). Next Generation Goes to the Ballot Box. a survey. Islamabad, Pakistan: British Council .

Dean, L. B. (2007). The State of Civic Education in Pakistan. Institute for Educational Development. , Civil Society Programme, Aga Khan Foundation. Islamabad (Pakistan): Aga Khan University. Retrieved from http://www.akdn.org/publications/civil_society

Etra, A. K. (2010). Youth Development through Civic Engagement: Mapping Assets in South Asia . VOSESA. Retrieved from http://www.icicp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Youth-Development-through-Civic-Engagement-in-South-Asia.pdf

Farooq , M., Idrees, M., TarÖq , S., Ghulzar, F., & Anwar , H. N. (Sep 2014). Consequences of Youth Bulge in Pakistan. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, 5(20).

Ferman, B. (2015). Youth Civic Engagement in Practice: The Youth VOICES Programme. jstor online journal, 14(3).

Fuller, G. (1995). The Demographic Backdrop to Ethnic Conflict: A Geographic Overview; The Challenge of Ethnic Conflict to National and International Order in the 1990's. Central Intelligence Agency (ed. )CIA (RTT 95-10039, Washington DC.

GYDI&R. (2016). Global youth development index and report. Common wealth Secretariat.

Hafeez, E. (2017, July). The Youth Bulge; A Ticking Time Bomb. ECO, Dawn Newspaper Sunday Magazine, p. Cover Story.

ILO. (2016). Proposal for Youth Employment Strategy; Working Paper for PMYP Department. Islamabad : International Labour Organization.

Jinnah Institute. Pakistan. (2013). Apolitical or Depoliticised? Pakistan's Youth and Politics: A Historical Analysis of Youth Participation in Pakistan Politics. . Karachi: Jinnah Institute.

Lin, Y. J. (2012, May 1). Youth bulge: A demographic dividend or a demographic bomb in developing countries? World Bank Blog. Retrieved from http://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/youth-bulge-a-demographic-dividend-or-a-demographicbomb-in-developing-countries

Ministry of Finance, E. A. (2016-17). Vision 2025; Pakistan Economic Survey (2016-17). Finance Division, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapters_17/Pakistan_ES_2016_17_pdf.pdf

Nussbaum, M. C. (2006). Education and Democratic Citizenship: Capabilities and Quality Education. Journal of Human Development, 7(3), 385-395.

Pakistan – A Home of Disengaged Youth. (2015). Retrieved from Youth Engagement services (YES) Network Pakistan http://yesnetworkpakistan.org/

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2014-15). Labour force survey. Statistics division. Islamabad:Government of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/labourforce-survey-2014-15-annual-report

Pakistan Today; WebDesk. (2017, MARCH 23). Pakistan ranked 147th on Human Development Index: UN report. Development Index. Retrieved from Pakistan Today: www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/03/23/pakistan-ranked-147th-on-human-development-index-un-report/

PARK, N. (2004). The Role of subjective well being in positive youth development. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591.

PMYP. (2013). Prime Minister’s Youth Program- Success Stories. Islamabad: PMYP Wing.

Sathar, Z. A., Kamran, I., Sadiq, M., & Hussain, S. (Aug 2016). Youth in Pakistan: Priorities, Realities and Policy Responses. The population council. Retrieved from https://www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/2016PGY_YouthInPakistan.pdf

Sports and Youth Affairs Department. (2016). Sindh Government Youth Policy. Karachi: Government of Sindh.

UNDP. (2016). Pakistan Human Development Reports. Retrieved from www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/PAK-2016

UNESCO. (2016-17, June 1). UNESCO Institute for Statistics Report. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2016). Data for the Sustainable Development Goal. Retrieved from Unesco institute for statistics: http://uis.unesco.org/

UNFPA. (2016-17). UN Population Fund Report. United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/swop




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v5i2.2022

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License