Quality of School Work Life of Public School Teachers: Cases from Turkey and Pakistan

Muhammad Akram, Abdurrahman Ilgan, Oyku Ozu-Cengiz, Ashfaque Ahmad SHAH

Abstract


The Quality of Work life (QWL) is the employees’ feeling or perception of being comfortable with their work. The objective of the present study was to compare Quality of School Work Life (QSWL) of public school teachers from Turkey and Pakistan. A QSWL scale developed by Ilgan, Ata, Zepeda and Ozu-Cengiz (2014) having 30 items was used as the research instrument. The sample included 995 Turkish teachers (from 8 cities) and 716 Pakistani teachers (from 5 cities of Punjab). Reliability coefficient of QSWL scale was 0.81. Further, five subscales within the QSWL tools were identified through its exploratory factor analysis. On all these 5 subscales of QSWL (when analysed separately), Turkish and Pakistani teachers differed significantly in their perceptions; however, they were found appreciating similar QSWL in the aggregate analyses. In detailed analyses of various subgroups only female teachers from Pakistan were found better on QSWL than their Turkish counterparts.


Keywords


developmental opportunities, fair wages, quality of school work life, school facilities

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akbaba, S. (1996). Ortaöğretim okullarının örgütsel sağlığı (Organisational health of high schools: Bolu province sample). (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Ankara University Graduate School of Social Sciences.

Al-Zboon, E. K., Al-Dababneh, K. A., & Ahmad, J. (2015). Quality of work life: Perceptions of Jordanian special education teachers. Education, 135(3), 380-388.

Aslam, H. D. (2013). Analysis of professional development practices for school teachers in Pakistan: A comparative case study of public and private schools of Pakistan (Punjab). International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(4), 311-326.

Balachandar, G., Panchanatham, N, & Subramanian, K. (2013). Quality of work life the power of insurance company: impact of personal factors on the quality of work life of the officers. Management & Marketing, 11(1), 123-133.

Baleghizadeh, S., & Gordani, Y. (2012). Motivation and quality of work life among secondary school EFL teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(7), 30-42.

Billingsley, B. (2004). Promoting teacher quality and retention in special education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(5), 370-376.

Boisvert, M. P. (1977). The quality of working life: An analysis. Human Relations, 30(2), 155-160.

Brittona, J. and Propper, C. (2016). Teacher pay and school productivity: Exploiting wage regulation. Journal of Public Economics, 133, 75-89.

Buckley, J., Schneider, M., & Yi, S. (2004). The effects of school facility quality on teacher retention in urban school districts. Chestnut Hill, MA: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved from www.edfacilities.org.

Elias, M. S., & Saha, N. K. (2005). Environmental pollution and quality of working life in tobacco industries. Journal of Life Earth Science, 1(1), 21-24.

Erdem, M. (2008). Quality of work life and its relation to organizational commitment according to teachers in public and private secondary school. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Ankara University Graduate School of Social Sciences.

Erdem, M. (2014). The level of quality of work life to predict work alienation, Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 14(2), 534-544. DOI: 10.12738/estp.2014.2.2126.

Farooq, M. S. (2013). An inclusive schooling model for the prevention of dropout in primary schools in Pakistan. Bulletin of Education and Research, 35(1), 47-74.

Flanagan, A., & Grissmer, D.W. (2006). Effect of teacher pay on student performance: Findings from Illinois. Working Paper of Rand Education Corporation.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2011). How to design and evaluate research in education (7th ed.). PA: McGraw-Hill.

Gadon, H. (1984). Making sense of quality of work life programs. Business Horizons, 27(1), 42-46.

General Accounting Office. (1995). School facilities: America’s schools not designed or equipped for 21st century (No. HEHS-95-95). Washington, D.C.

George, D., & Mallery, L. S. (2001). SPSS for windows step by step. A simple guide and reference 15.0 update (8th ed.). MA: Allyn & Bacon. Government of Pakistan. (2004). The development of education: National Report of Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE47/English/Natreps/reports/pakistan.pdf

Hans, A., Mubeen, S. A., Mishra, N, & Al-Badi, A. H. H. (2015). A study of occupational stress and quality of work life (QWL) in private colleges of Oman (Muscat). Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 7(3), 55-68.

Havlovic, S. J. (1991). Quality of work life and human resource outcomes.Industrial Relations, 30(3), 469-479.

Ilgan, A., Ata, A., Zepeda, S. J., & Ozu-Cengiz, O. (2014). Validity and reliability study of quality of school work life (QSWL) scale. International Journal of Human Sciences, 11(2), 114-137. doi:10.14687/ijhs.v11i2.2866.

Ilgan, A., Ozu-Cengiz, O, Ata, A., & Akram, M. (2015). The relationship between teachers’ psychological well-being and their quality of school work life. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(2), 159-181.

Imazeki, J. (2005). Teacher salaries and teacher attrition: How much is enough? Economics of Education Review, 24(4), 431-449.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2002). Out-of-field teaching, educational inequality and the organisation of schools: An exploratory analysis. Seattle: Centre for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

Johnson, S. M., Berg, J. H., & Donaldson, M. L. (2005). Who stay in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/articles/NRTA/Harvard_report.pdf

Kandasamy, I., Ancheri, S. (2009). Hotel employees’ expectations of QWL: A qualitative study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(3), 328-337.

Ketchum, L. D., & Trist, E. (1992). All teams are not created equal: how employee empowerment really works. Newbury Park: Sage.

Lau, R. S. M. (2000). Quality of work life and performance – An investigation of two key elements in the service profit chain model. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 1(5) 422-437. doi.org/10.1108/09564230010360164

Lau, R. S., & May, B. E. (1998). A win-win paradigm for quality of work life and business performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(3), 211-226.

Lewis, D., Brazil, K., Krueger, P., Lohfeld, L., & Tjam, E. (2001). Extrinsic and intrinsic determinants of quality of work life. Leadership in Health Services, 14(2), 9-15.

Loeb, S., & Page, M. (2000). Examining the link between teacher wagesand student outcomes: The importance of alternative labour market opportunities and non-pecuniary variation. Review of Economics and Statistics, 82(3), 393-408.

Luthans, F. (1995). Organisational behaviour. New York: McGraw Hill Inc.

Lynd, D. (2007). The education system in Pakistan: Assessment of the national education census. Islamabad: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesco.org.pk/education/teachereducation/files/sa4.pdf

Marable, M. A., & Raimondi, S. L. (2007). Teachers’ perceptions of what was most (and least) supportive during their first year of teaching. Mentoring & Tutoring, 15(1), 25-37.

McIntyre, L. J. (1999). The practical skeptic: Core concepts in Sociology. Mayfield Publishing: CA.

Memon, G. R. (2007). Education in Pakistan: The key issues, problems and the new challenges. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 3(1), 47-55.

Mentz, K. (2001). Change and the quality of work-life of teachers in rural school in South Africa. (2001). Paper presented at the annual conference of American Educational Research Association, April 9-13. Seattle, WA, USA. ED. 451991.

Nadeem, M., Rana, M. S., Lone, A. H., Maqbool, S., Naz, K., & Akhtar, A. (2011). Teachers’ competencies and factors affecting the performance of female teachers in Bahawalpur (Southern Punjab) Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(19), 217-222.

Narehan, H., Hairunnisa, M., Norfadzillah, R., & Freziamella, L. (2014). The effect of quality of work life (QWL) programs on quality of life (QOL) among employees at multinational companies in Malaysia. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 112, 24-34. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1136

Özpolat, A. (2002). Sosyolojik açıdan öğretmenlik mesleği ve öğretmenlerin toplumdaki yeri, öğretmen, öğrenci ve veli algılarına göre: Zonguldak örneği (Doktora tezi, İstanbul Üniversitesi). Istanbul: Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Rauf, M., Akhtar, M. S., Iqbal, Z., & Malik, M. A. (2013). Relationship between morale and job satisfaction of subject specialists teaching in higher secondary schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The Dialogue, 8(1), 69-83.

Robbins, S.P. (1989). Organisational behaviour: Concepts, controversies, and applications. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rose, R.C., Beh, L., Uli, J., & Idris, K., (2006). Quality of work life: Implications of career dimensions. Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 61-67.

Royuela, V., Lopez-Tamayo, J. & Surinach, J. (2008). The institutional vs. the academic definition of the quality of work life. What is the focus of the European Commission? Social Indicators Research, 86, 401-415.

Ruzevicius, J. (2007). Working life quality and its measurement. Forum Ware International, 2(1), 1-8.

Sasser, W. E., Schlesinger, L. A., & Heskett, J. L. (1997). Service profit chain. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Shah, M. J., Akhtar, G., Zafar, H., & Riaz, A. (2012). Job satisfaction and motivation of teachers of public educational institutions. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(8), 281-281.

Shen, J., Benson, J., & Huang, B. (2014). High-performance work systems and teachers’ work performance: The mediating role of quality of working life. Human Research Management, 53(5), 817-833.

Sirgy, M.J., Efraty, D., Siegel, P., & Lee, D. J. (2001). A new measure of quality of work life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spill over theories. Social Indicators Research, 55(3), 241-302.

Suttle, J. L. (1977). Improving Life at Work: Problem and Prospects. In H.R. Hackman and J.L Suttle (eds.). Improving life at work: Behavioural Science Approaches to Organisational Change (pp. 1-29). Santa Barbara, CA: Goodyear.

Tabassum, A., Rahman, T., & Jahan, K. (2011). Quality of work life among male and female employees of private commercial banks in Bangladesh. International Journal of Economics and Management, 5(1), 266-282.

Tye, B. B., & O’Brien, L. (2002). Why are experienced teachers leaving the profession? Phi Delta Kappan, 84(1), 24-32.

Useem, E. (2003). The retention and qualifications of new teachers in Philadelphia’s high-poverty middle schools: A three-year cohort study. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Education Fund.

Walton, R.E. (1973). Quality of working life: What is it? Sloan Management Review, 15(1), 11-21.

Wright, T., A., & Cropanzano, R. (2004). The role of psychological well-being in job performance: A fresh look at an age-old quest. Organizational Dynamics, 33(4), 338-351.

Zare, H., Haghgooyan, Z., & Asl, Z. K. (2014). Identification the components of quality of work life and measuring them in faculty members of Tehran University. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 7(1), 41-66.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v4i2.1366

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License