Exploring the Effects of Teacher Education on Teacher Quality and Student Achievement in Pakistan

Mahrukh Zahid, Mehvish Saleem


Amongst a variety of resources present, a teacher is considered to be the primary tool for enhancing the process of student learning. To be able to act as effective “agents of change” for their student, the teacher needs to enhance personal and pedagogical skills which can primarily be achieved through teacher education. This paper aims to be contributing to a broader understanding of language teacher education in the context of Pakistan. Employing a case study research method, the present study explored the ways in which teachers’ pre-service education affects teacher quality and student learning. A total of two tertiary-level novice teachers and seven first year undergraduate students from a public sector university in Pakistan participated in this study. Data were generated using teacher observation, teacher and student interviews, document analysis including teacher lesson plans and diary, course outlines and students’ work samples. Thematic analysis of the data showed contradictory results between the classroom practices of the teachers and their effect on students’ learning. The teacher with pre-service education used appropriate methodology and made well informed decisions which resulted in improvement of students’ learning. In contrast, the other teacher used traditional modes of teaching. Though happy with the classes, students found no practical use of what they learnt in the lessons. The study concludes that pre-service teacher education should to be made compulsory for individuals who wish to become teachers.


Pre-service Teacher Education, Teacher Quality, Student Learning, Qualitative Research, Case Study


Ali, T. (2011). Understanding how practices of teacher education in Pakistan compare with the popular theories and theories and narrative of reform of teacher education in international context. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(8), 208- 222.

Ashton, P. & Crocker, L. (1987). Systematic study of planned variations: The essential focus of teacher education reform. Journal of Teacher Education, 38, 2-8.

Aziz, S., Atta, N., Hassan, H., & Sahi, K. (2013). Students’ Satisfaction Regarding the Curricular Practices: A Comparison of Formal and Non Formal System of Teacher Education. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research, 60(28), 135 – 139.

Blomeke, S., Olsen, R., & Suhl, U. (2016). Relation of student achievement to the quality of their teachers and instructional quality. In T. Nilson & J. Gustafsson (Eds.), Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes. IEA Research for Education (Vol. 2, pp. 21–50). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Borg, S. (1998). Teachers’ pedagogical systems and grammar teaching: a qualitative study. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 9–38.

Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: research and practice. London: Continuum.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. London: Sage.

Burroughs N., Gardner, J., Lee, Y., Guo, S., Touitou, I., Jansen, K., & Schmidt, W. (2019). A Review of the Literature on Teacher Effectiveness and Student Outcomes. In Burroughs, N., Gardner, J., Lee, Y., Guo, S., Touitou, I., Jansen, K., & Schmidt, W. (Eds.), Teaching for Excellence and Equity. IEA Research for Education (A Series of In-depth Analyses Based on Data of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), (Vol. 6, pp. 21–50). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Cheon, S. H., Reeve, J., Vansteenkiste, M. (2020). When teachers learn how to provide classroom structure in an autonomy-supportive way: Benefits to teachers and their students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 90, 103004.

Crandall, J. A. (1998). A delicate balance: Theory and practice in teacher education. TESOL Teacher Education Interest Section Newsletter,13,3–4.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). How Teacher Education Matters. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 166–173.

Depaepe, F., & Konig, J. (2018). General pedagogical knowledge, self-efficacy and instructional practice: Disentangling their relationship in pre-service teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 69, 177-190.

Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher,38(3), 181–99.

Ellis, N. J., Alonzo, D., Nguyen, H. T. M. (2020). Elements of a quality pre-service teacher mentor: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 92, 103072.

Ferguson, P. & Womack, S.T. (1993). The impact of subject matter and education coursework on teaching performance. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1), 55-63.

Gopang, I. B. (2016). Teacher Education and Professional Development Programs in Pakistan. The International Journal of Research in Teacher Education, 7(1), 1-14.

Gore, J., Lloyd, A., Smith, M., Bowe, J., Ellis, H., & Lubans, D. (2017). Effects of professional development on the quality of teaching: Results from a randomised controlled trial of Quality Teaching Rounds. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68, 99–113.

Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 798– 812.

Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1988). Student Achievement through Staff Development. White Plains, NY: Longman.

König, J., Blömeke, S., Paine, L., Schmidt, B., & Hsieh, F.-J. (2011). General pedagogical knowledge of future middle school teachers. On the complex ecology of teacher education in the United States, Germany, and Taiwan. Journal of Teacher Education, 62, 188-201.

König, J., Blömeke, S., Klein, P., Suhl, U., Busse, A. & Kaiser, G. (2014). Is teachers' general pedagogical knowledge a premise for noticing and interpreting classroom situations? A video-based assessment approach. Teaching and Teacher Education, 38, 76-88.

Kraft, M. A. (2015). Teacher layoffs, teacher quality and student achievement: Evidence from a discretionary layoff policy. Education Finance and Policy, 11(4), 1–41.

Kubanyiova, M. (2012). Teacher development in action: Understanding language teachers’ conceptual change. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Li, Q., Zhu, X., & Lo, L. N. K. (2019). Teacher education and teaching in China, Teachers and Teaching, 25(7), 753-756.

Perkes, V A. (1968). Junior high school science teacher preparation, teaching behavior, and student achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 5(2), 121-126

Prediger, S. (2019). Design-Research in der gegenstandsspezifischen Professionalisierungsforschung. In T. Leuders, E. Christophel, M. Hemmer, F. Korneck, & P. Labudde (Eds.), Fachdidaktische Forschung zur Lehrerbildung (pp. 11-34). Münster: Waxmann.

Rehmani, A. (2006). Teacher education in Pakistan with particular reference to teachers' conceptions of teaching. Quality in education: Teaching and leadership in challenging times, 20, 495 - 524.

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., & Elam, G. (2013). Designing and selecting samples. In Maruster, L. (Ed.), Qualitative Research Methods (pp. 79-110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Olaitan, S. O. (1983). The Status of Teacher Education in Nigeria: A Challenge for Improvement. Improving College and University Teaching, 31(4), 176 – 182.

UNESCO (2000). Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All. Meeting Our Collective Commitments. World Forum on Education, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000, UNESCO, Paris.

Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/ijelcs.v5i1.3142


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Experiential Learning & Case Studies

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.