The Role of Gender in Employee Retention: A Study of Private Hospitals in Karachi

Fouzia Nasir, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Riaz


The retaining and draining talent has been the most perplexing saga for the organizations. The corporate arena remained the battlefield between these two positive and negative challenges. In this regard, several strategies are devised by offering lucrative benefits to the talent to stick around with the organization. The objective of this study was to analyse the role of Gender in retention, with specific reference to the private hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The study further intended to answer if Private hospitals inclined more to retain male or female employees. Employee’s retention policies are planned to increase the employment agreement and decrease the ample expenses concerned with recruiting and training the employees. After implementing managerial behaviour concepts organization can improve retention charges and reduce the related expenses of high turnover. A descriptive, causal study was carried out using purposive sampling to conduct an interview with 50 employees with the help of a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed through SPSS applying Regression model to identify key factors influencing employee retention. The two leading hospitals were the focus of the study. The study found the health care organizations had a particularly subjective approach while allocating salaries among male, female employees.  Therefore, it recommends to all organizations whether services or industrial, that the improved job setting by no inequity lead to rises the efficiency of the workers as well as of a business.


Employee retention, Health care services, Health care organizations

Full Text:



Allen, D. G., Bryant, P. C., &Vandaman, J. M. (2010). Retaining talent: Replacing misconceptions with evidence-based strategies. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(2), 48-64.

Ali, P. (2017). Gender-based violence and the role of healthcare professionals. Nursing Open, 5(1), 4–5. doi:10.1002/nop2.120

Bacharach, S. B., Bamberger, P., & Conley, S. (1991). Work‐home conflict among nurses and engineers: Mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of organizational Behavior, 12(1), 39-53.

Bibi, P., Ahmad, A., & Majid, A. H. A. (2018). Chapter 7 HRM Practices and Employee Retention: The Moderating Effect of Work Environment. Applying Partial Least Squares In Tourism and Hospitality Research, 129–152. doi:10.1108/978-1-78756-699-620181007

Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (1981). Race and sex differences in quits by young workers. Industrial LaborRelation Review, 34, 563-577.

Cotter, A. M. M. (2017). Gender injustice: An international comparative analysis of equality in employment. Routledge.

Clarke, K.F. (2001). What businesses are doing to attract and retain employee- becomingan employer of choice. In Employee Benefits Journal.pp.34-37.

Clark, A. E. (2001). What really matters in a job? Hedonic measurement using quit data. Labour Economics, 8,223-242.

Clark, A. E. (1997). Job satisfaction and gender: why are women so happy at work?Labour Economics, 8,341-372.

Crosby, F. J. (1982). Relative deprivation and working women. New York, NY: OxfordUniversity Press.

Donohue, J. J. (1988). Determinants of job turnover of young men and women in the United States. Research in Population Economics, 6, 257-301.

Even, William and David Macpherson. 1994. Gender Differences in Pensions. Journal of Human Resources,29(2):555-587.

Fitz-enz, J. (1990).Getting and keeping good employees.In personnel. 67(8): 25-29.

Griffeth, R. W., &Hom, P. W. (1995).The employee turnover process.Research in personnel and human resources management, 13. Greenwich, CT.: JAI Press.

Hochwater, W. A., Ferris, G. R., Canty, A. L., Frink, D. D., Ferrewe, P. L., &Berkson, H. M. (2001).Reconsidering the job-performance-turnover relationship: The role of gender in form and magnitude. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2357-2377.

Holtom, B. C., & Darabi, T. (2018). Job Embeddedness Theory as a Tool for Improving Employee Retention. Psychology of Retention, 95–117. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-98920-4_5

Holzapfel, A. (2017). DETERMINING THE RETURN ON INVESTMENT: SUPPORTIVE POLICIES FOR EMPLOYEE CAREGIVERS. Innovation in Aging, 1(suppl_1), 1111–1111. doi:10.1093/geroni/igx004.4068

Hyman, J. (2016.). Employee Participation in Organizational Decision Making. Encyclopedia of Career Development. doi:10.4135/9781412952675.n96.

Hytter, A. (2007). Retention strategies in France and Sweden.The Irish Journal of Management, 28(1), 59–79.

Kim Minjoo and Kim Nam Sook (2014). Factors Influencing on the Turnover Intention of Female Care Workers. Korean Journal of Family Social Work, 43, 37- 59.

Laschinger, H. K. S. (2011.). Staff Nurse Work Engagement in Canadian Hospital Settings: The Influence of Workplace Empowerment and Six Areas of Worklife. Handbook of Employee Engagement. doi:10.4337/9781849806374.00035

Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19, 51-89.

Lee, T. H., Gerhart, B., Weller, I., & Trevor, C. O. (2008). Understanding voluntary turnover: Path-specific job satisfaction effects and the importance of unsolicited job offers. Academy of Management Journal, 51,651-671.

Light, A., &Ureta, M., (1992). Panel estimates of male and female job turnover behavior: Can female-quitters be identified? Journal of Labor Economics, 10(2), 156-81.

Liqin, Zhang and Xiao-yuan Dong. 2006. Male-Female Wage Discrimination in ChineseIndustry: Investigation Using Firm-Level Data. GEM-IWG Working Paper 06-11

Ludike, J. (2018). Digital Employee Experience Engagement Paradox: Futureproofing Retention Practice. Psychology of Retention, 55–73. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-98920-4_3

Lyness, K. S., &Judiesch, M. K. (2001). Are female managers quitters? Therelationships of gender, promotions, and family leaves of absence to voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86,1167-1178.

Lynch, Lisa M. (1992). Differential effects of post-school training on early career mobility.NBER working paper no. 4034. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic ResearchRoyalty, A. B. (1998). Job-to-job and job-to-nonemployment turnover by gender and education level.Journal of labor Economics, 16, 392-443.

Lyngsie, J., & Foss, N. J. (2017). The more, the merrier? Women in top‐management teams and entrepreneurship in established firms. Strategic Management Journal, 38(3), 487-505.

Macneil, J., & Liu, Z. (2017). The role of organizational learning in soft regulation of workplace gender equality. Employee Relations, 39(3), 317–334. doi:10.1108/er-01-2016-0022

Malik, A. R., Singh, P., & Chan, C. (2017). High potential programs and employee outcomes. Career Development International, 22(7), 772–796. doi:10.1108/cdi-06-2017-0095

March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958).Organizations. New York, NY: John Wiley &Sons.Jackofsky, E. F., & Peters, L. H. (1983).The hypothesized effects of ability in the turnover process.Academy ofManagement Review, 8, 4649.

McConnell, C. R. (2011). Addressing Employee Turnover and Retention. The Health Care Manager, 30(3), 271–283. doi:10.1097/hcm.0b013e318225e3bf

McGregor, J., Davies, S. G., Giddings, L. S., & Pringle, J. (2017). Pursuing equal pay: The perspectives of female engineers and potential policy interventions. Journal of Industrial Relations, 59(1), 3-21.

Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., &Graske, T. (2001). How to keep your best employees: Developing an effective retention policy. Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 96-109.

Mueller, C. W., & Wallace, J. E. (1996).Justice and the paradox of the contented female worker.SocialPsychology Quarterly, 59, 338-349.

Osteraker, M.C. (1999). Measuring motivation in a learning organization. Journal of Work Place Learning

Parker, O. and Wright, L. (2001). Pay and employee commitment: the missing link. In Ivey Business Journal.65 (3): 70-79 Kehr, H. M. (2004). Integrating implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities. The compensatory model of work motivation and volition.Academy of management review.

Phelan, J. (1994). The paradox of the contented female worker: an assessment of alternative explanations. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 95-107.

Rakhra, H. K. (2018). Study on factors influencing employee retention in companies. International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management, 4(1), 57. doi:10.1504/ijpspm.2018.088695

Roy, B. (2018). Factors Determining Employee Retention: A Study in Banks. International Journal of Management Studies, V (Special Issue 2), 101. doi:10.18843/ijms/v5is2/13

Sicherman, N. (1996). Gender differences in departure from a large firm. Industrial and labor Relations Review,49(3), 484-505., I. (2002). Factors affecting the job-to-jobless turnover and gender.Laboour, 16(4), 729-746.

Sloane, P. J., & Williams, H. (2000).Job satisfaction, comparison earnings, and gender.Labour, 14, 473-502.

Solberg, Eric and Teresa Laughlin.1995. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and OccupationalCrowding.Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(4):692-708.

Sousa-Poza, A., & Sousa-Poza, A. A. (2000).Taking another look at the gender/job-satisfaction paradox.Kyklos53, 135-152.

Sousa-Poza, A., & Sousa-Poza, A. A. (2007). The effect of job satisfaction on labor turnover by gender: An analysis for Switzerland. Journal of Socio-Economics, 36, 895-913.

Stein, N. (2000). Winning the war to keep top talent: yes you can make your workplace invincible. In fortune. 141(11):132-38

Štěrbová, Ludmila. (2013). aj. Mezinárodní obchod ve světové krizi 21. Století [International trade in the global crisis of twenty-first century] (1st ed). Praha: Grada Publishing, p. 368. (Další autoři: ČERNÁ, Iveta, ČAJKA, Radek, BOLOTOV, Ilya).

Sudhakaranl, P., & Senthil Kumarl, G. (2017). Analyzing the Role of Retention Measures in the Determination of Voluntary Turnover Intentions of Software Professionals in India. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 10(24), 1–8. doi:10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i24/115166

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turn over intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.

Tiwari, M. (2017). Work Life Balance of Female Employees in Private Institutions, Gwalior: An Investigation. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 19(05), 35–38. doi:10.9790/487x-1905053538

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 82(1), 183-200.

Walker, J.W. (2001). “Perspectives” Human resource planning.24 (1):6-10.

White, M., Hill, S., McGovern, P., Mills, C., & Smeaton, D. (2003). ‘High‐performance’ management practices, working hours and work–life balance. British journal of industrial Relations, 41(2), 175-195.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Experiential Learning & Case Studies

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.