Issues of Distance Education Tutors in Pakistan: A Study on Print-Based Distance Education

Shahid Saleem Arain, Parveen Munshi

Abstract


The aim of the study was to investigate institutional issues relating to tutors of print-based distance education (DE) institutions working in Pakistan. It was a part of descriptive study with mixed design. The present quantitative part comprised of 140 B.Ed tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) from all the regions in Sindh. A five point Likert Scale questionnaire was developed as a research instrument to collect data. Descriptive statistics, in terms of percentages and mean scores, were used. The results revealed non-meritorious & non-criterion based tutor deployment, low remuneration rates, late payments, seldom payment of invigilation remunerations, non-payment of TA, non-professional behaviour & lack of authority of regional centres(RCs), short time for submission of results, inadequate study centres, lack of general & academic facilities at study centres, non-provision of related study materials, lack of monitoring by RCs, unskilful tutors and inadequate university website  for tutors. The study recommends criterion-based tutors’ deployment on merit, enhanced remuneration rates, timely payments, and invigilation remuneration, establishing model study centres, sufficient time for result submission, proper monitoring by RCs, provision of study material and training to distance tutors (DTs) and provision of necessary information & guidance for tutors on AIOU website.


Keywords


Distance Education, Distant Tutors, Tutors Problems

Full Text:

Full Paper

References


AIOU (2015). AIOU in brief-2015. Research and Evaluation Centre. Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

Akhtar, N., & Ali, R. (2015). Problems of distance learners regarding assessment process in Pakistan. Bulletin of Education and Research, 37(2), 59-67.

Ali, B., & Mahmood, A. Dr. (2016). Problems faced by tutors in distance education at regional level. International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning (IJDEEL). 1(2), 30-33.

Arain, S.S., & Munshi, P. (2017). Problems of distance learners in Province of Sindh, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, Leena and Luna International, Chikusei, Japan, 6(3), 139-147.

Attri, A.K. (2012). Distance Education: Problems and solutions. International Journal of Social and Movement Sciences, 1(4), 42-58.

Badu-Nyarco, S. K., & Amponsah, S. (2017). Assessment of challenges in distance education at University of Ghana. Indian Journal of Open Learning. 25(2), 87-103.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

De Souza, A.M., & Polonia, A.C. (2015). Tutoring in distance education: Proposals, challenges and reflections. International Journal of Education Excellence,1(2), 53-80

Greenberg, G. (1998). Distance education technologies: Best practices for K-12 settings. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 17(4), 36-40.

Higher Education Commission (2004). Statistical Booklet on Higher Education (2003-04). Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Jacobson, R. L. (1994). Extending the reach of 'virtual' classrooms. Chronicle of Higher Education,40(9), A19-A23.

Joubert, Y.T., & Snyman, A.M. (2017). Challenges experienced with online tutoring in an ODL institution. http://upjournals.co.za/index.php/prgressio. 39(1), 126-145.

Jumani, N. B., Khan, S.B. & Hussain, M. A. (2009). Experiences and tensions of tutoring at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. 10(2), 150-161.

Keegan, D. J. (1986). The foundations of distance education, London; Dover, N.H: Croom Helm.

Keegan, D. J. (1998). Distance education: International perspectives. Routledge. Chapman & Hall, Inc. New York.

Lenar, S., et.al. (2014). Problems and decision in the field of distance education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences.131.111-117.

Metz, N., & Bezuidenhont, Adele. (2018). An importance competence analysis of the roles and competencies of e-tutors at an open distance learning institutions. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(5), 27-43.

Mehmood, T., Rehman, Z., & Jamil, T. (2011). A review of the problems faced by AIOU regional centres in Pakistan. Journal of American Science,7(1) 92-99.

Moore, M.G., & Karsely, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth-Cengage Learning.

Nart, S., & Altunsik, R. (2013). Improving distance education system: Problems and solutions from the perspective of lecturers. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education and e-learning, 1(4), 23-29.

Rao, V. K. (2004). Distance Education. A.P.U Publishing Corporation. Darya Ganj, New Delhi.

Rashid, N., & Rashid, M. (2011). Issues and problems in distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 4(5), 20-26.

Shah, A.A. (2016). Perception of students about tutorials in open and distance learning at Allama Iqbal Open University. Pakistan Journal of Distance & Online Learning, 2(2), 67-94.

Valentine, D. (2002). Distance learning: Promises, problems, and possibilities. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 5(3), 1-11.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/ijelcs.v4i2.2568

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments


Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Experiential Learning & Case Studies

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.