Relationship of Social Progress Index (SPI) with Gross Domestic Product (GDP PPP per capita): The moderating role of Corruption Perception Index (CPI)

Bilal Qaiser, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Usman Siddiqi, Ahmed F Siddiqui



This study investigated the impact of social progress on economic development in 119 countries, while taking their individual corruption perception into consideration. Simple linear regression was use on the secondary data for 119 countries and 5 continents while the SPSS PROCESS macro was used to test the moderating effect of corruption perception. As hypothesized, a positive relationship of the social progress index (SPI) with gross domestic product (GDP) PPP per capita was observe. This means that countries, which fulfill basic human needs, foundations of wellbeing and foster availability of opportunities have enhanced economic development. Moreover, the moderating role of corruption perception between the relationship of social progress and economic development was confirmed; thus indicating that countries with better corruption perception rating possess a stronger relationship of SPI and GDP (PPP) per capita and vice versa. When checked for continents, moderation results showed that the continents that have higher values of corruption perception index (CPI) are more socially and economically developed.

Full Text:



J. Stiglitz, A. Sen, and J.-P. Fitoussi, Mismeasuring Our Lives: Why GDP Doesn’t Add Up. The New Press, 2013.

M. E. Porter, S. Stern, and M. Green, “Social Progress Index,” Social Progress Imperative, 2015.

X. Xu, “Corruption and economic growth: an absolute obstacle or some efficient grease?,” Econ. Polit. Stud., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 85–100, 2016.

Transparency International, “Corruption Perceptions Index 2015,” Transparency International, 2015.

M. T. Rock and H. Bonnett, “The Comparative Politics of Corruption: Accounting for the East Asian Paradox in Empirical Studies of Corruption, Growth and Investment,” World Dev., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 999–1017, Jun. 2004.

A. Maddison, “A comparison of levels of GDP per capita in developed and developing countries, 1700–1980,” J. Econ. Hist., vol. 43, no. 01, pp. 27–41, Mar. 1983.

N. Ahmad and S. Arjumand, “Impact of corruption on GDP per capita through international migration: an empirical investigation,” Qual. Quant., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1633–1643, Jul. 2016.

P. Mauro, “Corruption and Growth,” Q. J. Econ., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 681–712, 1995.

P. Grabova, “Corruption impact on Economic Growth: An empirical analysis,” J. Econ. Dev. Manag. IT Finance Mark., vol. 6, no. 2, p. 57, 2014.

C.-U. Kim and G. Lim, “Corruption and Economic Growth: A South Korean Study,” J. Rev. Glob. Econ., vol. 4, p. 1, 2015.

J. Shao, P. C. Ivanov, B. Podobnik, and H. E. Stanley, “Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors,” Eur. Phys. J. B, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 157–166, Apr. 2007.

B. Podobnik, J. Shao, D. Njavro, P. C. Ivanov, and H. E. Stanley, “Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment,” Eur. Phys. J. B, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 547–550, Jun. 2008

P.-G. Méon and L. Weill, “Is Corruption an Efficient Grease?,” World Dev., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 244–259, Mar. 2010.

R. Ram, “PPP GDP Per Capita for Countries of the World: A Comparison of the New ICP Results with World Bank Data,” Soc. Indic. Res., vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 1057–1066, Jul. 2016.

N. N. Anh, N. N. Minh, and B. Tran-Nam, “Corruption and economic growth, with a focus on Vietnam,” Crime Law Soc. Change, pp. 1–18, 2016.

I. Ehrlich and F. T. Lui, “Bureaucratic corruption and endogenous economic growth,” J. Polit. Econ., vol. 107, no. S6, pp. S270–S293, 1999.

P.-G. Méon and K. Sekkat, “Does corruption grease or sand the wheels of growth?,” Public Choice, vol. 122, no. 1–2, pp. 69–97, 2005.

P. Bardhan, “Corruption and development: a review of issues,” J. Econ. Lit., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1320–1346, 1997.

S. P. Huntington, Political order in changing societies. Yale University Press, 2006.

N. H. Leff, “Economic development through bureaucratic corruption,” Am. Behav. Sci., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 8–14, 1964.

C. Leys, “What is the Problem about Corruption?,” J. Mod. Afr. Stud., vol. 3, no. 02, pp. 215–230, 1965.

F. T. Lui, “An equilibrium queuing model of bribery,” J. Polit. Econ., vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 760–781, 1985.

C. Forza, “Survey research in operations management: a process-based perspective,” Int. J. Oper. Prod. Manag., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 152–194, 2002.

V. L. P. Clark and J. W. Creswell, Understanding research: a consumer’s guide, Second edition. Boston: Pearson, 2015.

J. W. Creswell, Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Los Angeles: Sage, 2009.

S. B. Green and N. J. Salkind, Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: analyzing and understanding data, Seventh edition. Boston: Pearson, 2014.

A. F. Hayes, Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press, 2013.

A. P. Field, Discovering statistics using SPSS: (and sex, drugs and rock “n” roll), 3rd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2009.

K. S. Bordens and B. B. Abbott, Research design and methods: a process approach, Ninth edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.

M. Saunders, P. Lewis, and A. Thornhill, Research methods for business students, 5th ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009.

B. Matthews and L. Ross, Research methods: a practical guide for the social sciences, 1st ed. New York, NY: Pearson Longman, 2010.

M. P. Johnston, “Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come,” Qual. Quant. Methods Libr., vol. 3, pp. 619–626, 2014.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Chief Editor

Prof. Dr. Ejaz Ahmed 
College of Computer Science & Information Systems


Prof Dr. S. M. Aqil Burney

Associate Editors

Prof. Dr. Tariq Rahim Soomro
Dr. Muhammad Mansoor Aalam

Publication Coordinator
Konpal Darakshan

Editorial Advisory Board (Internal)

Dr. Syed Irfan Hyder
Dr. Mohammad Irshad Khan
Dr. Shahid Amjad
Dr. Abdul Rauf Farooqui
Dr. Syed Iftikhar Ali
Dr. Tajuddin Islamuddin
Dr. Muhammad Danish Khan
Dr. Imran Majid
Dr. Fatima Riaz
Dr. Adeel Ansari
Dr. Zeeshan Shahid
Ms. Seema Ansari

Editorial Advisory Board (International)

Prof. Dr. Mazliham Mohd Su'ud, President, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Prof. Dr. Ghassan Al-Qaimari, President, Emirates College of Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Prof. Dr. Patrice Boursier, Universite de La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France
Prof. Dr. Mudassir Uddin, Professor, University of Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Nadeem Doudpota, Associate Professor, Al-Baha University, KSA
Dr. Haithem Abdelrazaq Almefleh, Associate Professor, Yarmouk University, Yarmouk, Jordan
Dr. S. Asim Ali, Assistant Professor, University of Karachi, Pakistan

Member Editorial Review Board (International – Academia)

Dr. Asadaullah Shah, Professor, International Islamic University, MalaysiaDr. Hasan Wahba, President American College of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Dr. Tahseen Jilani, Assistant Professor, University of Manchester, UKDr. Atif Memon, Associate Professor, The University of Maryland, USA
Dr. Syed Waliullah Shah, University Sains, MalaysiaDr. Inayatullah Shah, International Islamic University, (Kuantam), Malaysia
Dr. Salahttin Kuru, Kemeburgaz University, TurkeyDr. Soon Min, INTI International University, Malaysia
Dr. Shahrulniza Musa, Professor, Malaysian France Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Bandar Baru Bangi, MalaysiaDr. R. Praveen Sam, Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, KURNOOL, India
Dr. Manzoor Ahmed Hashmani, Associate Professor, University Technology Petronas, MalaysiaDr. Alveera Mehdi, Professor, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

Dr. Sajjad Waheed, Professor, Department of Information and Communication Technology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail 1902, Bangladesh

Dr. Kushairy Bin Abdul Kadir, Associate Professor, British Malaysian Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Gombak, Malaysia
Dr. Mohammad Hameed Ahmed AlTaei, Assistant Professor, Applied Sciences College, Sohar, OmanDr. Eiad Yafi, Associate Professor, Malaysian Institute of Information Technology Universiti, Malaysia
Dr. Muhammad Azam Sheikh, Assistant Professor, Chalmers University, SwedenDr. Safeeullah Soomro, Postdoc Dean College of Computer Studies, AMA Int. University, Bahrian
Dr. Aymen Adil Belghith, Assistant Professor, University of Sfax, Sfax,TunisiaDr. Radwan Alsadiq Alqirmazi, Assistant Professor, University of Sfax, Sfax,Tunisia
Dr. Mohammad Arif Amin, Assistant Professor, Higher College of Technology, Abu Dhabi Men’s College, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE)Dr. Ismat Aldmour, Assistant Professor, Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)
Dr. AbdulRahman Ahmed Mohammed Al-Sewari, Senior Lecturer, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, MalaysiaDr. Mohammed A. Afifi, Director, Associate of Science in Computer Science, Al Dar University College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Dr. Youssef Ahmed Masmoudi, Assistant Professor, Saudi Electronic University, Jeddah male Campus, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)Dr. Zulfiqar Memon, Assistant Professor, Ajman University of Science & Technology, Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Dr. Abdul Basit Samsuddin Banga, Assistant Professor, Saudi Electronic University, Jeddah male Campus, Kingdom of S. Arabia (KSA)Dr. Mohamad Ismail Sulaiman, Senior Lecturer, British Malaysian Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Gombak, Malaysia
Dr. Syed Faiz Ahmed, Senior Lecturer, British Malaysian Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Gombak, Malaysia

Dr. Jawad Ali Shah, Senior Lecturer, British Malaysian Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Gombak, Malaysia

Dr. Sarfraz Nawaz Brohi, Lecturer, Taylor’s Unversity, Lakeside Campus, Malaysia

Dr. Fahad Sikander, Assistant Professor, Saudi Electronic University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Member Editorial Review Board (International – Non Academia)

Dr. Abdul Razaque Memon, Director Solution Marketing at Huawei Technology, AustraliaDr. Syed Abbas, Project Director, NetSys Technical Services, Business Bay, Duabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Dr. Muntasser Khater, Educational Senior Consultant, CAN DU e-Business, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) 

Member Editorial Review Board (National – Academia)

Dr. Madad Ali Shah, Professor and Vice Chancellor, BBS University of Technology & Skill Development, KhairpurDr. B. S. Chaudhry, Professor, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology (MUET), Jamshoro
Dr. Mir Ghulam Hyder Talpur, Professor, University of Sindh, JamshoroDr. Imdad Ismaili, Professor, University of Sindh, Jamshoro
Dr. Syed Asif Ali, Professor, Sindh Maderessah Tul Islam University, KarachiDr. Mukhtiar Ali Unar, Professor, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology (MUET), Jamshoro
Dr. Syed Amir Iqbal, Associate Professor, NED University, KarachiDr. Syed Haider Shah, Associate Professor, Univeristy of Balochistan, Quetta
Dr. Talal Shrafat Rehmani, NUST, KarachiLt. Cdr. Dr. Asif Mansoor, NUST, Karachi
Dr. Faisal Maqbool Zahid, Associate Professor, University of Faisalabad 

Member Editorial Review Board (National – Non Academia)

Dr. Amir Khan, Ministry of Defense, Govt. of Pakistan, KarachiDr. Bahrawar Jan, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Islamabad