Afia Saleem, Attaullah Shah



The purpose of this research is to test the mediating rolethat resilience plays between job demands and job stress of universityteachers. For this purpose a total of 243 questionnaires were collectedfrom university teachers and data so gathered was analyzed usingStructural Equation Modeling , to test the fit of the proposed model. The results show that the relationship between teachers’ job demandsand job stress is mediated by teachers’ resilience. The model servesas a source for epitomizing the key concepts in the given field ofstudy and furthering the research in exploring other positiveconstructs and their interaction with job stress


Resilience to stress, job stress, job demands, stress mediator

Full Text:



Aluede, O. (2009). The Teacher Matters: Strategies for Making the Teaching Profession More Relevant in Nigerian Educational System. International Journal of Education Science, 1(1), 39-44.

Beltman, S., Mansfield, C., & Price, A. (2011). Thriving not just surviving: A review of research on teacher resilience. Educational Research Review, 6(3), 185-207.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS - basic

concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., &Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of

perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.

Dabholkar, P. A., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2002). An attitudinal model of

technology-based self-service: Moderating effects of consumer traits and situational factors. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3), 184-201.

Dumont, M., & Provost, M. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,28(3), 343-361.

Fimian, M.J. (1984). The development of an instrument to measure

occupational stress in teachers: The Teacher stress Inventory. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 57, 277-293.

Freedman, S.W., & Appleman, D. (2008). “What else would I be

doing?”: Teacher identity and teacher retention in urban schools. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(3), 109-126.

Glaser, M., Butler, J., & Pryor, B. (1998). Apprehension about

communication and human resilience. Psychological Reports, 82, 583-586.

Hair.Jr., J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., &Tatham, R.

L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. New Delhi: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hanif, R. (2004). Teacher stress, Job performance and self efficacy of

women school teachers. A dissertation submitted to National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-e- Azam University, Islamabad.

Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-step approach to using the SAS system for

factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Cary, NC, USA: The SAS Institute.

Hammond, O. W. &Onikama, D. L. (1997).At Risk Teachers. Honolulu,

HI. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.( ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 442 796)

Henderson, N., & Milstein, M. (2003) Resiliency in schools: Making it

happen for students and educators. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Henderson, N. & Milstein, M. M. (1996). Resiliency in schools: Making

it happen for students and educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Hinkin, T.R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the

study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21 (5), 967-988.

Ingersoll, R., & Smith, T. (2003).The wrong solution to the teacher

shortage. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 30–33.

Kauts, A., & Saroj, R. (2010). Study of teacher effectiveness and

occupational stress in relation to emotional intelligence among teachers at secondary stage. 1(1).

Kitching, K., Morgan, M., & O’Leary, M. (2009). It's the little things:

Exploring the importance of commonplace events for early-career teachers' motivation. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(1), 43-58.

Kobassa, S. (1993).Clarification of sampling in some early hardiness

articles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.65, 207.

Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review,53(1), 27-35.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B., Avey, J. B. & Norman, S. M. (2007).

Psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572.

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of

resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.

Lazarus, R.S., &Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.

Maslach , C., Jackson, S. E., &Leiter, M. P. (1997). Maslach Burnout

Inventory.In C. P. Zalaquett& R. J. Wood (Eds.), Evaluating Stress: A book of resources (pp. 191-218). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education.

Montano, R. R. (1998). Resiliency characteristics of women in

education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northern Arizona University.

Montgomery, C., & Rupp, A. A. (2005). A meta-analysis for exploring

the diverse causes and effects of stress in teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 458–486.

Morris,B.A. (2009). Measuring Resilient Characteristics Of Teachers, A

Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Georgia in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree.

Munson, P. (1991).Winning teachers/Teaching winners. Santa Cruz,

CA: ETR Associates.

Naidoo, K. (2011).Stress management and its impact on work

performance of educators in public schools in KwaZulu-Natal. Thesis submitted for the degree Doctor of Philosophy at the Potchefstroom Business School in the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences of the North-West University.

Nash, P. (2005) Speech to Worklife Support Conference. London Well

Being Conference, London, 21st April 2005.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994).Psychometric theory. New

York: McGraw Hill.

Osofsky, E. [Ed.] (1979). Handbook for research on infant development.

New York: Hill.

Reivich, K., & Shatte´, A. (2002). The resilience factor: Seven essential

skills for overcoming life’s inevitable obstacles. New York, NY: Broadway Books.

Richardson, G. E., Neiger, B. L., Jensen, S., &Kumpfer, K. L. (1990).

The resiliency model. Health Education, 21(6).

Sobel, M. (1990).Effect analysis and causation in linear structural

equation models. Psychometrika, 55(3), 495-515.

Taylor, S., & Todd, P. A. (1995). Understanding information technology

usage: A test of competing models. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 144-176.

Winzelberg, A. J., &Luskin, F. M. (1999). The effect of a meditation training in stress levels in secondary school teachers. Stress Medicine, 15, 69–77.

Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk

children from birth to adulthood. New York: Cornell University Press.

Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1982).Vulnerable but Invincible: A

Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth. New York: McGraw Hill.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E &Schaufeli, W.B. (2007). The Role Of Personal Resources In The Job Demands-Resources Model. International Journal of Stress Management. American Psychological Association, 14( 2), 121–141.

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New

York: Harper and Row.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.