ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP IN THE UNIVERSITY CONTEXT: REALITY OR MYTH? EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN

Syed Imad Shah, Ali Muhammad, Shafiq ur Rehman


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/pbr.v17i4.555

Abstract


The purpose of thi s paper is t o ex amine the phenomena ofentrepreneurial leadership in the context of Pakistani universities inan attempt to justify its role, value and applicability. In general,entrepreneurial leaders are vital to successful transformation oftraditional universities into entrepreneurial ones. A comparative casestudy approach was adopted whereby 30 semi-structured interviewswere conducted in six public and private universities. This studyreveals that entrepreneurial leadership (EL) works at the operationallevel of university hierarchy instead of a top down approach. A‘university push model’ is found more effective than a ‘governmentpull model’ whereby we propose a conceptual model indicatinge nt re pre ne uri al ori e nt at i on as pre re qui si te f or c re at i ngentrepreneurial culture for the development of EL. Challenges areaddressed to the implementation of EL in different sectors. Theresearch contributes to our knowledge of entrepreneurial leadership,especially in the Pakistani context, where little real effort has beenmade so far

Keywords


Entrepreneurial leadership (EL), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), culture, operational leadership, organisational change, university

Full Text:

PDF

References


Asian Development Bank, http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/pakistan-damage-needs-assessment.pdf, 22/8/2011, 4pm

Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A., & Kirkpatrick, S. A. (1998) A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms. 83(1), 43-54.

Boyett, I. (1996) The Public Sector Entrepreneur - A Definition. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 9 (2), 36 – 51.

Bramwell, A. & Wolfe, D, A. (2008) University and Regional Economic Development: The Entrepreneurial University of Waterloo. Research Policy, 37(2008), 1175-1187.

Bryman, A. (1988) Quantity and Quality in Social Research. Unwin Hayman Ltd., USA and Canada.

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2009) Business Research Methods.2nd, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York.

Clark, B. (2001) The Entrepreneurial University: New Foundations for Collegiality Autonomy, and Achievement. Higher Education Management, 13(2), 9-24.

Clark, B. R. (1998) The Entrepreneurial University: Demand and Response. Tertiary Education and Management, 4(1), 5-16.

Creswell, J. W. (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approach. 3rd, Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA.

Currie, G. et al. (2008) Entrepreneurial Leadership in the English Public Sector: Paradox or Possibility? Public Administration, 86(4), 987-1008.

Eddleston, K. A. (2008) Commentary: The prequel to family firm culture and stewardship: The leadership perspective of the founder. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(6), 1055-1061.

Eisenhardt, K. M. &Graebner, M. E. (2007) Theory Building From Cases: Opportunities and Challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1.

El-Namaki, M. S. S. (1992) Creating a corporate vision. Long Range Planning, 25(60), 25-29; as cited in: Fernald, L. W., Solomon, G. T., &Tarabishy, A. (2005), A New Paradigm: Entrepreneurial Leadership, Southern Business Review, McCartney, W. W., and Parker, D. F. (Eds), 30(2), 1-10.

Etzkowitz, H. (2003) Research groups as „quasi-firms‟: the invention of the entrepreneurial university. Research Policy, 32(1), 109–121.

Etzkowitz, H., & Zhou, C. (2007) The Entrepreneurial University in Various Triple Helix Models. Singapore Triple Helix VI Conference Theme Paper, Singapore, National University of Singapore, 1-25.

Fernald et al. (2005) A New Paradigm: Entrepreneurial Leadership. Southern Business Review, 30 (2), 1-10.

Fitzsimmons, J. et al. (2005) Growth and Profitability in Small and Medium Sized Australian Firms. AGSE Entrepreneurship Exchange, Melbourne.

Gupta, V. et al. (2004) Entrepreneurial Leadership: Developing and measuring cross-cultural construct. Journal of Business Venturing, 19 (2004), 241-260.

Hofstede, G. (2007) Asian Management in the 21st Century. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 24(4), 411-420

Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F. and Zahra, S. A. (2002) Middle Managers‟ Perception of the Internal Environment for Corporate Entrepreneurship: Assessing a Measurement Scale.Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3), 253-273.

Jacob, M. et al. (2003) Entrepreneurial transformations in the Swedish university system: the case of Chalmers University of Technology. Research Policy, 32(9), 1555–156.

Kaipa, P., Milus, T. &Dannemiller, K. (2009) Mapping the Organizational DNA: A System Approach to Mergers & Acquisitions Part-II, http://kaipagroup.com/casestudies/ma2/ mapping_dna_part2.html.

Katz, J. and Gartner, W.B. (1988) Properties of Emerging Organizations, Academy of Management Review, 13, 429 – 41.

Kirby, D. A. (2006) Creating Entrepreneurial Universities in the UK: Applying Entrepreneurship Theory to Practice. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(5), 599-603.

Kuratko, D. F. & Hornsby, J, F. (1998) Corporate Entrepreneurial Leadership for the 21st Century. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(2), 27-39.

Kuratko, D. F. et al. (2005) A model of middle-level managers‟ entrepreneurial behaviour.Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29, 699-716.

Lau, L. M. T. et al. (2012), “The entrepreneurial behaviour inventory: A simulated incident method to access corporate entrepreneurship”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 8 Vol. 18 No 6, pp. 673 – 696

Laukkanen, M. (2003) Exploring academic entrepreneurship: drivers and tensions of university-based business.Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(4), 372–382.

McGrath, R.G. & MacMillan, I.C. (2000), The Entrepreneurial Mindset. MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Miles, M. B. &Huberman, A. M. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis.2nd Edition, Sage Publications.

Morris, M. H., & Jones, F. F. (2000), Entrepreneurship in established organizations, The case of Public Sector, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, fall, 71-79

Morris, M.H. &Kuratko, D.F. (2002) Corporate entrepreneurship. Mason, OH: South-Western College Publishers.

Mouly, V. &Sankaran, J. (2007) Managing innovation in an emerging sector: the case of marine-based nutraceuticals, R & D Management, 37 (1), pp. 80 - 102

Nor IskandarMohd Nor, Za’faran Hassan (2007) The Relationship between Leadership, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Organizational Culture, and Customer Satisfaction in Public Organization: A Conceptual Model, The 4th SME in a global economy conference.

O’Shea, R. P. et al. (2005) Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. universities.Research Policy, 34(7), 994–1009.

O’Shea, R.P. et al. (2007) Delineating the anatomy of an entrepreneurial university: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology experience.R & D Management, 37(1), 1-16.

Oduro, G. K. T. (2004). Distributed Leadership in Schools: What English Head teachers Say about the Pull and Push Factors. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, University of Manchester.

Pakistan Earthquake Case study, The Command and Control Research Program, http://www.dodccrp.org/files/case_studies/Pakistan_EQ_case_study.pdf, 22/8/2011, 4pm

Quinn, J. B. (1985) Managing Innovation: Controlled Chaos, Harvard Business Review, 63(3), pp. 73-84

Schneider, B. and Rentsch, J. (1988) Managing climates and cultures: A futures perspective, in Hage, Jerald (Ed), Futures of organizations: Innovating to adapt strategy and human resources to rapid technological change, Issues in organization and management series, 181-203, Lexington, MA, England: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com, xvi, 302 pp. ; as cited in: Nor IskandarMohd Nor, Za’faran Hassan, 2007, The Relationship between Leadership, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Organizational Culture, and Customer Satisfaction in Public Organization: A Conceptual Model, The 4th SME in a global economy conference.

Singleton, R. A. et al. (1993) Approaches to Social Research. Oxford University Press, New York).

Stopford, J. M. & Baden-Fuller, C. (1994) Creating Corporate Entrepreneurship, Strategic Management Journal, 15(7), pp. 521-536

Tarabishy, A. et al. (2005) The Entrepreneurial Leaders Impact on the Organization’s Performance in Dynamic Markets The Journal of Private Equity, 8(4), 20-29.

Terry, L. D. (1993) Administrative Leadership, Neo-Managerialism, and the Public Management Movement.Public Administration Review, 58(3), 194-200.

Vogel, A. &Kaghan, W. N. (2001) Bureaucrats, Brokers, and the Entrepreneurial University.Organization, 8(2), 358-364.

Woods, W. et al., (2004) Variabilities and Dualities in Distributed Leadership: Findings from a Systematic Literature Review. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 32(4), 439-457.

Yin, R, K. (2009) Case Study Research: Design and Methods. (4th Ed.), Thousand Oaks California, Sage Publications.

Zerbinati, S. A. &Souitaris, V. (2002) Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: a Framework of Analysis in European Local Governments. Paper presented at the Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference, University of Colorado.

Zerbinati, S., &Souitaris, V. (2005). Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: A Framework of Analysis in European Local Governments. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 17(1), 43-64.



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.